The recent trends of higher education in Russia: state and development prospects.

Shevchenko Dmitry Anatolyevich, Doctor of Economics, Professor, Head of marketing and promotion of the Russian State University for the Humanities shevm@rggu.ru

 

 

The recent trends of higher education in Russia: state and development prospects.

The article seeks to conduct a marketing analysis of the market development of higher vocational education (HVE). The main purpose of article is defying the key trends that universities can face in the next five years.

Keywords: the demographic situation in Russia, the market value of HVE, teaching staff salary, market trends HVE, consumers and market operators HVE, demand and competition on the roar of HVE, market prices HVE, market prospects HVE

 

It is interesting that the higher education market develops in conjuction with the same laws and principles as any consumer market in Russia. However, it is difficult ownership and content market, which has a number of features, which are characteristic of institutions, state-owned and non-profit institutions (its property both private and municipal.) [1]

In 2012 the Russian market of higher education was life-changing. Russia was joined to World Trade Organisation (WTO). This point is crucial for higher professional education (HPE).

There was created a group of universities in Russia with a special status: the federal, national researching, also with a special status – Moscow State University (MSU) and St. Petersburg State University (SSU) (soon – Moscow State Technical University named after Bauman (MSTU)). They receive additional funding from the Russian Government under a program approved by the Government of the Russian Federation The Ministry of Education and Science had scandalous evaluate the effectiveness of universities in four areas: education, research, financial-economics and international activities. As a result of this monitoring, agency decided on the reduction and unification some of higher professional schools. Now all universities seek to enter the global stage and at the top leading universities of the world. However, unfortunately Moscow State University doesn’t at the first hundred leaders. [2]

 

Demographics

Russia’s demographic situation is becoming stable, but its effects have an impact on the market of higher vocational education (HVE), which is a major concern of the Government. Recent changes in the market HVE (a sharp reduction of branches, schools, universities joining weak universities to strong) explains the demographic challenges (reducing the number of students graduating classes and schools).

According to the results of the census of 1 January 2011: it resides 142.9 million people in Russia (it is at 985.5 thousand more than in 2010). We can explain it as overall situation in the country and measures to increase the birth rate, taken by the Government. However, the overall growth of the school children population aged 17 years (students) every year decline. From 2005 to 2010 the number of students (in grade 11-year studying) have declined by more than 30% (from 2400 thousand to 1676 thousand.). According to estimates by 2016 the number of students decreased by 27% (from 7050 thousand. to 5133 thousand.). Since 2010 – 2016 freshmen will be reduced by 20% (282.6 thousand). You can not forget that teaching staff standard is 1 teacher to 10 students, with the exception of certain types of educational programs. The maximum statutory costs in the field (field of study) is one of the state service on the freshman year of 2012/2013 academic year is: for undergraduate programs and specialties – 112.0 thousand rub., for Graduate Programs – 127.6 thousand rubles. [1]. It can be assumed that by 2016 the number of teaching staff will be reduced automatically by at least 30% in each university.

The market value of higher education

Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation estimated expenditure on education reached 5.4% of GDP (2011), which is about 293,592 bln rubles at the rate of 54,369 trn GDP rub. in 2011, the private costs for education in 2011 was variously estimated from 130-150 bln rub. Estimated Discovery Research Group, in 2011 the turnover of the business of higher education in Russia amounted to 197.2 bln rubles., 71% of the value of the market fell to the state and municipal educational institutions of higher education. [2]. Total expenditure on higher professional education (including for-profit colleges) would amount to 446 billion rubles in 2013. According to the program of education for the  2012, the total cost of higher education from 2014 will be approximately equal to 500 billion rubles a year. It compares to the total expenditure on education-developed economies. The federal budget for 2013-15 years insignificantly increase spending on education, but as a share of GDP, they fall. However, the budget system of basic education spending accounted for a third level of the budget system as municipal budgets, which are quite dated regional. Track the increase in spending on education can be exclusively for the consolidated budget in the Russian Federation.

The researchers say that the money is budgeted for only two of the next year. But by 2015, five Russian universities must log in first hundred international ratings. One of the challenges is rising wages university professors, who (in accordance with the presidential decree) should increase to the average region wage.

Teaching staff salary

Researchers who conduct market research in the tertiary activity, acutely aware of the role played by the staff of any business, let alone a non-profit organization. Activities in the field of education is an example. Teaching staff, his intellectual abilities, skills and competencies are  fundamental intangible asset and a strong competitive factor of any university.[3]

In 2010-11 the number of teaching staff is 324, 8 thousand people. Among them, 40.2 thousand are doctors of science (32.6 thousand professor) and 169.2 PhDs. Among 653 public higher education establishments are 349 universities, 176 – academys, 128 – institutions.

Perennial problem is pay for teaching staff. Currently wages of skilled and full professors at elite universities (equal wages and Western universities) is about – 100 -150 thousand rubles a month. It is less prestigious universities: 50-90 thousand rubles. In the small-time universities: 25-40 thousand rubles.

By 2018, the average salary of university teaching staff shall be 200% of the average wage in the region. As requested by the Prime Minister on February 14, 2012 (№ VP-P8-1018) in September-December 2012, in Russian universities teachers’ salaries should be increased to a level not lower than the average wage in the relevant subject of the Russian Federation. Pursuant to the relevant instructions in the federal budget for the year 2012 have been fixed and submitted to the federal authorities having jurisdiction of universities, means an increase in payroll of teachers (2.65 billion rubles). Russian Ministry of Education and Science monitors the average salary of the staff of the faculty of the federal universities.[4] The employees of the faculty are assistant professors, lecturers, senior lecturers, associate professors and professors. Average wage is calculated by dividing the wage bill of the faculty on its average number. Presentation of data is carried out by universities through electronic cabinets in a single information system, maintenance of activity of the Russian Ministry of Education and Science. [3].

For example, in October 2012 in Blagoveshchensk State Pedagogical University the teaching staff salary per month was 57. 9 thousand rubles to the average salary of the regional economy, it is – 218.9%!. In Belgorod State National Research University was 48.8 t.r. and it is more than the average wage in the region at 232.9%. In Moscow: the Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI) was 52.0 t.r. and it is higher than the regional average wage at 113.1%. In Moscow State Technical University named after Bauman (MSTU) wass 44.6 t.r. and it is below the average wage is 95.4%. In “MiFi” was 71.0 t.r. higher than the average salary plan and is 151.9%; MSU – 55.0 t.r. – 117.6%; MGIMO – 46.2 t.r. below average – 98.8%, HSE – 65.3 t.r. – it is one of the highest in Moscow and is 139.7% of the average regional wage; RSUH was 48.6 t.r. and it is 104.4%, REA was 54.9 t.r. – 117.5%; PFUR was 49.9 t.r. – 131.1%; RCTU named after Mendeleev was only 39.6 t.r. and it is only 84.7%, St. Petersburg State University was 50.7 t.r. – 152.2%. As can be seen in Moscow as a whole salary is higher in some regions it is higher by orders of magnitude. The branches are usually not up to 60-80% by the regional wage. But in any case, by 2018, there is a prospect of wage growth of the faculty, bringing it up to 200% of the regional average salary in accordance with the Decree. [4]. It is a combination of acquired knowledge, skills, values, experience of competence in order to satisfy the education and interests requirements. Accessibility and quality of higher education on a competitive basis. [7].

Key trends of the HVE market

In 2012 at Russian universities enrolled 7049.8 thousand students (493 students per 10,000 population) of all education forms: full-time (3073, 7 million), part-time (evening 304.7 million), distance (3557, 2 million), external studies (114, 1). Among the total number of students are women 4030.1 people. Record growth in student numbers has occurred in the 2008-09 academic year and it was in number of 7513 mln. people. On 10 thousand people in the country had 529 students. In this respect Russia has bypassed many of the developed countries. But in the 2009-10 academic, the number of students has decreased by 94 thousand people. (including  79 thousand people in public universities).

At the beginning of the 2010-11 school year in Moscow enrollment 1168.1. thousand students. In public and municipal schools was enrolled 807.0 thousand students, in non-state – 361.1 thousand students.

In 2011, the increase of  the number of universities compared to 2008 also decreased by 1.8% and amounted to 7049.8 thousand people. At the beginning of the 2010-11  in the target enrollment contract trained 309.8 thousand students in the public and commercial schools. In Russian Federation the share of Non-state educational establishment is 41%, with one third of them are concentrated in Moscow [5].

The high demand for higher education is a consequence of the increasing number of high schools by increasing the number of private universities.

In 2010/11, Russia had 1,115 higher education institutes, which 653 public high school, attended by the vast majority of students as 5848, 7 thousand, compared with 462 commercial higher education institutions, where are learning less 1201.1 thousand students.

The unprecedented growth of the university branches. In the 2000 universities raced to open branches and representative offices in all regions, large, medium and small Russian cities, and then – in abroad. In the beginning of 2011, the number had more than 2,000 branches, i.e., almost double the number of universities in the country.

A significant proportion for-profit education, a strong demand for educational programs: Bachelor’s (partly Master’s degree programme), formed in 2011-12. It lets talk about the emergence of the market of professional higher education, with his usual intense competition.

The demand of higher vocational education began to grow in the 90-years, when the country began to gradually its economy rebuild on a position of market relations. Then growing need for specialists with financial, economic, legal, sociological, etc. education. Many universities have started to prepare such specialists (especially universities) using only paid form of training, including a technical college, but it was a question of the training quality, and then the threat of overshoot.

A leader of the educational area is Moscow. There are 112 public schools and 250 private in Moscow at the moment.[5]

Faced with intense competition, higher education institutions have gained excellent marketing experience with competitive strategies in regionsю There are 100 thousand people accrue to 8-10 branches of universities, which, however, share the offer with educational programs – a specialty, mostly: Management, Economics, and Law Science. A glut of proposals for regional closed markets educational institutions led to the structure deformation of the educational needs of the population. Came on disparities between the educational needs of consumers and the requirements of the labor market, which actually reduces the effectiveness of higher education, reproduction and development of the social and occupational region structure.[6] According to the Murmansk Office of State Employment Service, on September 1, 2012 in the employment Arctic service addressed 1108 of vocational education graduates, which 389 people graduated from specialized schools and vocational schools, 257 – from colleges and 462 people got its specialty in universities, and mainly in the humanities.[7] There are 512 graduates registered to the first day of the school year in employment centers [6]. In the towns aggravated the problem of access to education which branches of universities decided and have begun to reduce the quality of education. As the result  the quality tests navigated at home and on the phone.

By the year 2015 (due to the reduction in the number ) will be not beneficial to “feed” a number of universities from the budget. But commercial universities with using the lowest price for education at the expense of education quality, can not fulfill the task of preparing young professionals for an innovative economy.[8] Moreover, almost 90% of them offer Economics, Management and Law. Therefore, first of all, commercial universities will be reduced and will be redeveloped to a vocational schools to become specialised secondary educational establishment. Spearheaded by the President of Russia began a sharp decline of universities and, especially, branches now. This measure objectively ripe, but it has a political basis. By 2016, the number of universities from 1115 (in 2010) will be reduced to 770 (in 2016), i.e. reduction of the universities number will happen by 31% in the next four years.

 

Consumers and market operators of HVE: university classification and basic profile of contemporary prospective university student

The new Federal Law on Education states that education is a public benefit and is important in the interests of the individual, family, society and the Government. It is a combination of acquired knowledge, skills, values, experience of competence in order to meet the educational needs and interests. Accessibility and quality of higher education  based on a competitive foundation [7]. An economic point of view shows that the basic functions of the higher education institute is to develop a social and occupational structure of society, which corresponds to the development and improvement of the productive forces, strengthen the international economic competition in Russia. The Modern Government and developed society tends to equalize starting opportunities for its members through the creation and enhancement of access to education, minimizing the impact of households depending on the inherited and their available economic resources, origin, place of residence and other social risks and hazards [7]. It is interesting that for 90% of Russian families has become common practice to educate their children in schools.[9]

Higher education market is characterized by too much images and reputations of universities. Marketing experts distinguish brand-leaders and branded and non-branded universities.[10] Brand leader is a brand which called brand development (strong brand) according to Western terminology. Brand universities distinguish from other more than 60%, and the brand-leaders distinguish more 90% of this category of products. Brand leaders are not have many, they are than two or three, no more. Brands are difficult to understand the phenomenon, usually the “territory” of brands is the consciousness and psychology of consumers. But the universities in the eyes of consumers were divided into “upmarket”, “prestigious enough” and “not necessarily prestigious”.[11]

According to their positioning in relation to consumer segments, universities were divided into three classes: the upmarket, prestigious, it is not prestigious.[12]

Educational services prices range from 60-80 thousand rubles in big Russian cities: Yaroslavl, Vladimir, Tver, Kostroma, Tula, Ivanovo, and up to 300 thousand and more at Moscow universities. So, chances for admission to Moscow universities are minimal. It is much more opportunity for more gifted and creative students, and therefore graduates for the state educational institutions. Olympics, Common National Examination (CNS) is seen as a chance to equalize start opportunities for regional students.

The fact that many commercial universities affordable than the state, and a recent study has confirmed the educational agency “ReytOR.” For example, the most expensive university’ specialty is “Management and Economics” in MSIIR with price in 249 400 rubles per year. Second place sets Higher School of Economics with price 234 800 rubles, and RSUH with 249 000 rubles. For Lomonosov Moscow State University price is 191200. Fashionable specialty education in commercial high school will cost in the New Economic High School University with 119,400 rubles per year, at the International Academy of Business and Management – 45 900 rubles, at the Institute of Business Career – 35 000 rubles. Accredited commercial universities give the same state diplomas both state universities.[13]

Today the level of access to higher education and the prestige of the university depends on material resources from a student. It is an objective measure that does not exclude entrants individual abilities (high CSE competition winner). Socio-demographic characteristics are crucial in the analysis of consumer behavior in any consumer market. Without doubt, they do not rule out the influence of other important market segmentation parameters: psychographic and behavioral.[14]

All polls taken into account financial situation of applicants (households), in line with the assessment, they gave financial position of his family (parents).[15] Consequently, we fixed three main groups of students (middle-class): rich, assured, poor. Correlation of the material situation of the parents with the ability to educate the elite, prestigious and very prestigious university, indicates the presence of property restrictions (cash) and long-term access to quality education.[16] Marketing specialists know that increasing incomes way to rising costs for education in Russia[17]. It is easy to understands why some famous universities gradually raise the education price.

The lowering of applicants estimates of their family income increases the number of applicants who do not plan to enter the elite and prestigious universities and they are ready with a low payment amount to go to any university. For example, only 7-18,5% of affluent families are planning to enroll in an elite and prestigious universities. The overwhelming majority of students willing to act “is not necessarily a prestigious university”.

With a decrease in assessment income significantly, too, and the extinction of motivation students to provide them with their interesting profession. Highest motivation to study at the prestigious university expressed by 80-85% of the “rich” students who believe that their education will provide them with high incomes and high social status. Among the “poor” such sentiments show less than 25% of young people.[18]

Polls among first years student of marketing and advertising show that 80-84% of affluent students say that the main thing in life and career is the “connection” and more than 50% indicate that it is money.[19] Simple observation shows that the representatives of the rich and affluent families worse than others to attend. And they confidently declare that “in which case” they will help parents in employment.

Do not match the student expectation positions of the future initial salary value after graduation. Value starting salary is twice the expectations of other groups for students from wealthy families.

High differentiation of material resources “input” of the university students and former students (students 1st year) suggests different motivations towards their career prospects and life values.

Based on the research, we can conclude that we are dealing specifically with the prevailing market segments of HVE, which are resistant large groups of applicants (household members) with high, middle and low income (the “rich”, “security”, “needy”). However, these large customer groups (market segments) not only differ in socio-economic, but also psychographic parameters, which are found in their expectations and cultural needs, as mentioned above.

We can speak about three consumer behavior trajectories of the main HVE market segments.

  1. “Rich.” Trajectory behavior segment “rich” (5.9% of respondents) is characterized by optimism and high aspirations about their future. This category of students and expects to have more confidence and “chance” entry to elite universities in Moscow and St. Petersburg than other market segments.
  2. “Well-fixed”. This category of the middle class by the number of times exceed “rich” category (18-25%). It is represented by households, confident in the future-oriented and professional career and a good income. Often this prospective students business owners, entrepreneurs and mid-level managers. This segment expects to enroll in a prestigious technical and humanities Moscow universities.
  3. “Under-privileged.” This segment is “not quite secured family” and it is the largest number of students (55-65%). This category of students expects to enroll in any university, where tuition will match their income. Forming their own plans at any cost to income is not necessarily a prestigious university, they are subject, however, take every opportunity to enter the elite and prestigious universities, relying on his high exam, the Olympics, the situation.

The market of higher education in Russia is schematically seen: 7% -22% -71%.

If we detail the Moscow HVE market, we must introduce substantial amendments to all segments of the market. The number of segments will save, but the percentage of their relationship will not be much different. We believe that the share of Russian secured segment relative will increase by 30-40% and correspondingly reduced the percentage of the “under-privileged”.

As the result the Moscow market entrants will be 15% – 35% – 50%.

If it takes the specific sector universities: elite – prestigious – not prestigious, there will be another statistic. In a university, for example, the prestige, the ratio of the segments as a percentage will also vary by 15% -55% -30% with the budget places. In the elite university relationship “rich”, “swell-fixed” and “under-privileged” can be 40% -50% -10% agreeably.

Market participants of educational institutions behave as well as operators realty market, youth apparel and footwear, telecommunications and other developed markets in the consumer sector. Their goal is to adapt their own business, set up their company’s competitive strategies to the requirements of the market segments, i.e., needs and demands of consumers, customers and VIP customers, and at the same base using customized marketing. The company is positioning itself to meet the demands and their own capabilities in these markets. Some of them offer luxury fashion and shoes, places real estate, apartments, telephony, banking, etc. Other companies set up their business in the sale of lifestyle products and services for business customers, high-price segment of consumers, mainstream and low-price. Manufacturers want to place their offers for every large and mid-market by developing their special products and services, loyalty programs and partnerships. Consumer markets do not develop in a competitive landscape other ways.

 

Demand and HVE market competition

Official statistics shows that the demand for technical training areas of higher education is 2-3 times lower than humanitarian.    It stands to mention that before the crisis in 2008 a significant difference in demand was observed. In 2005 the demand (competition applications for 100 seats) was on the physics and mathematics of 3.1 people in place, the natural direction – 3.3, and the social and economic and management of all – 2.5.

It is changed after the crisis in 2009. Competition in the humanitarian sector of commercial universities rose to 10 people in place! The most revealing statistics of the graduates number. In 2004 and 2010 was a double cut (18, 0. thousand. physical and mathematical sciences, and 9.7.). By contrast, in 2004, graduates of the humanities were 144.7 thousand people, 2010 and 178.9 thousand. In 2010-12 the higher education market was developed according to the scenario of unprecedented growth in demand for socio-economic and humanitarian (SEG) educational programs (EP). In the early 21st century, the number of social and economic institutions of higher education growth and has led to the technical nature of the development and competitive market in the country.

Public and commercial institutions are also involved in competition. Some of them, such as MESI MIRBIS, MU became more active than state universities and use new educational technologies (eg, distance education) and information systems. Universities are looking for more active market niches: specialization, low prices. In order to survive, these universities are using technology software. This leads to a reduction in the set of educational programs to economics, management, law, focusing on the further vocational education.

For the non-state educational establishment as a separate category it is difficult to predict the future. There is not enough attention paid to the quality of education. Objectively, the goals of the non-state educational establishment are different: following of sales volume, number of fee-paying students, finding ways to keep them “any” price turns lower demand and control over knowledge

State educational institutions are in a better position: dorms, guaranteed funding of material and technical base of education, research, salary, “social” from the budget, etc.

The competition between the non-state educational establishment and state educational institution have a good reason to talk about its development in the future.  Young professionals (especially engineers) from state universities developed without competition with non-state edicational establishment. We can explain it as the lack of elementary appropriate material and technical base and the absence of its own funds for its creation.

The current situation in the HVE market.

In 2011-12 the government has taken steps to reform the HVE market in accordance with the WTO standards and has left the initiative to identify poorly performing public schools to the end of 2012, as well as to develop and approve program of reorganization the may 2013.[20] According to the plans in 2013, 15-20 best universities in the country will receive an impressive public support for the year 2020, at least five of them were in the hundred best world universities.

The Ministry of Education and Science of Russian Federation has proposed five quantitative criteria for a quick and objective evaluation. In the field of educational activities identified grade point average of USE of enrolled students.[21] The Russian Federation Ministry of Education and Science  announced on its website the results of the full monitoring of 541 higher education institutions and 994 branches of Russian state institutions and their branches. The result was the fact that more than 130 Russian universities and institutes, including the most popular in Moscow and many large regional universities were a “sign of inefficiency”. In the list were 70 private universities and 97 branches, including 41 high school and 55 branches with signs of inefficiency. Based on the “monitoring”, the ministry intends to take a number of different decisions about the future of a high school. The first is the elimination of many universities. The second is a merger with a more “efficient”. The third is the reorganization universities to vocational training college. And the fourth is a gain a certain amount of budget funds. However, it is well known from Economics that any merger or reorganization (merger) is the same amount to liquidation (of high school).[22] The consequences of such monitoring, which decided to hold constant (the second wave evaluation of universities in 2013), were changable for the market of HVE.[23]

Many regional universities, especially its branches, lost their own labor markets. The asymmetry of the regional edication market and labor is not solvable economic problem. Budget do not turn into an investment if graduates are looking for work are not in the profession, and have “degrees” of public higher edication. Universities that have developed their own labor markets, do not lose too much. Regional authorities support its higher education budgets, if it will “work” on the region.

These steps and the decision of the Ministry  provoked a lot of publications and discussions in the media. Indeed, the number of criteria may be different, for example, evaluation of career and income of graduates, the quality of their training, they show on state examination, scientific publications of teachers, their citation and other.

For the mature HVE market, this monitoring and its impact will be a heavy blow to the image and reputation of the whole of Russian education system and unpredictable consequences for many regional universities and students. From the standpoint of the economy demand for HVE by entrants will not fall, but the evaluation criteria established brand-universities seriously shaken.

It is a critical situation today. It is difficult to assess the impact of this “reorganization.” It will be taken some time to restore HVE market. Price changes for educational services, logistics and other costs will depend on consumers of services. The merger of universities will be held with huge human and creative educational losses.

HVE market prospects

Russia’s accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) ended December 16, 2011 signing of the Protocol of Accession to the Marrakesh Agreement establishing the WTO.[24]

A new draft law “About Education in the Russian Federation” in comparison with the existing regulations more fully regulates international activities in the field of education, defines the use of distance learning technologies and e-learning required for cross-border delivery of education services, and so on. Current legislation and a draft federal Law “About Education in the Russian Federation” comes from the fact that the training of foreigners in Russia and Russian citizens abroad, mainly carried out by the contracts between the parties. Similarly, the need to be addressed all the issues arising in the process of international sales services.[25]

During the making a list of Russian commitments it was the main goal to create a normal competitive environment in the domestic market of services, to attract foreign investment, and to provide the necessary level of protection for those Russian service providers who may be in a disadvantage relative to foreign competitors.

In accordance with the GATS, Russia shall assume the obligations of foreign suppliers for access to the services market. Therefore during the making a list of Russian commitments, the main aim is to create a normal competitive environment in the domestic market of services, to attract foreign investment, and to provide the necessary level of protection for those Russian service providers who may be at a disadvantage relative to foreign competitors.

Let us briefly consider a few new points to be faced Russian HVE market in the next five years. GATS suggests that foreign private persons may provide services as individual entrepreneurs or to be service providers employees. Commercial presence of foreign universities can be established through the creation of foreign legal entities, opening of branches, representative offices in Russia. Russia undertakes does not to impose restrictions on the providing persons possibility of other educational services members from the territory of any WTO member to Russia. In this case educational services provision occurs remotely, through various forms of communication using network technologies, etc.

If we compare the options of service delivery, it is possible to conclude that the more the Russian educational environment need protection in the event of a commercial presence of a foreign supplier, and the presence of foreign individuals. In this case the main objectives are: maintaining the right overall balance between Russian and foreign educational providers, quality of service and a normal competitive environment.[26]

Resume.

The fact speaks for itself that there is a survival strategy for the majority of Russian universities. HVE is changable for many years. Many heads of institutions (rectors and vice-rectors) are accustomed to sudden “change” and the endless checks for purity and quality of the university’s activity.

Pending of the university management reform has to reckon with the influence of two factors. First, universities can no longer rely solely on traditional sources of financing. Second, they actively must seek financial support from the market, and therefore suffer from the effects of competitive attacks from other universities. Competition is a major challenge for the university. There comes a time of sharp competition, pricing, advertising wars HVE market. Most public universities are not prepared and do not know how to behave on the market. Many high schools competitions are minimal and as consequence students do not want to learn there. And the main reason is not in a humanitarian or technical direction of the university. We have not the crisis of higher education, but we have the crisis of education management. Currently universities have to focus on the global level of science, but it is not to national. In such competition will win the person who invest the money earned in academics with potentional to a worldwide reputation.

The analysis of the current Russian HVE market, the consequences of its integration into the WTO is good reason to believe that the Russian universities will be prepare for the bitter struggle for each student, which will unfold in the next 5 years. The universities where marketing and advertising are given more attention, have a better chance than those in which either ignore the laws of the market or give marketing of educational services a serious nature, it will be difficult to promote their educational services and retain their competitive advantage.

Our observations of the mechanisms of the modern universities in Russia show that the Russian state universities majority do not internal incentives for future change and innovation. The Government plans (including aggressive ways) to create economic conditions for market HVE development, counting on the development of competitive advantages of leading universities in Russia.

The HVE market situation is qualitatively change. Russia has a tendency to go to international HVE market integration and the labor market. The students have new opportunities to get high-quality and unique education, find an interesting job, build a career in domestic and foreign labor markets. Teaching staff has a lot of opportunities to strengthen its financial position, creative and scientific potential. The university authorities have new perspectives for innovative strategies and customized solutions in terms of the latest HVE development.

References

  1. Borovskaya М.А. Group norms costs specialties and training as a key stage in the reform of university financing / / Higher Education in Russia. – 2012. – № 6. – P3-14
  2. In 2011 the turnover of the HVE business in Russia amounted to 197.2 billion rubles. [Electronic resource]: RBC. market Research. URL: http://marketing.rbc.ru/news_research/13/08/2012/562949984513534.shtml (request data: 01.01.13)
  3. Russian Ministry of Education publishes the average salary of teachers of Russian universities [electronic resource]: Ministry of Education and Science URL: минобрнауки.рф/%D0%BD%D0%BE%D0%B2%D0%BE%D1%81%D1%82%D0%B8/2849 (request data: 01.01.13)
  4. Information on wages for full-time university faculty in October 2012 [electronic resource]: Ministry of Education and Science URL: http://минобрнауки.рф/новости/2849/файл/1341/12.11.23-Вузы-Октябрь-Мониторинг.pd (request data: 01.01.13)
  5. Educational institutions of higher education [electronic resource]: Statistical Yearbook. URL: http://www.gks.ru/bgd/regl/b11_11/IssWWW.exe/Stg/d1/08-09.htm (request data: 12.12.12)
  6. Beloglazova G., Mikhailov A. Diplomas wholesale / / The Russian Newspaper: The economy of the Northwest. – 2012. – № 5899.
  7. Federal education law in the Russian Federation from 29.12.2012 № 273-FZ [electronic resource]: Coordinating Council teaching associations and scientific-methodical council of higher education. Portal of the federal state educational standards of higher education URL: http://www.fgosvpo.ru/index.php?menu_id=37&menu_type=2&parent=4 (request data: 12.12.12)

 

 

 


[1] You can see detailed information about the Russian market. Shevchenko D.A. Market and market relations in Russia: Economic and Sociologic Analysis / / Practical Marketing. “M., 2011, № 3 (169).

[2] It was published a new ranking of the best universities of the world – QS World University Ranking 2011/12. Agency QS rankings since 2004, in the academic community it is considered the most authoritative. Moscow State University and St. Petersburg State University – were not included in the list of the top hundred, down a few notches from last year. They occupied the 112th place (MSU) and 251 th (SPSU). Last year’s rating of Russian universities were more MSU took 93rd place, St. Petersburg State University – 210 place, Novosibirsk State University – 375 place, Tomsk State University and the Graduate School of Economics (HSE), then ended up in fifth hundred list.

[3] See for example Borisova, Investigation staff loyalty as a key marketing asset of the university. / / Marketing and market research. Grebennikov Publishing House, 2012, № 3.

[4]Monitoring is carried out in a pilot mode in accordance with the methodology developed and approved by the Federal State Statistics Service forms of statistical observation number CP-education “Information on the number and remuneration of members of the education by staff category” (Order of October 30, 2012 № 574).

[5] There are 446 private universities plus 661 branch in Moscow. In 2011, when the budget places allocated on a competitive basis, about 90 private universities have expressed a desire for a government order. Competition withstood only 54 universities,18 of them are in Moscow. There are about 2 percent of the non-state universities got budget places.

[6] In 2011, it was decided that the Federal State Statistics Service from 2016 will be carry out a continuous survey of graduates of vocational education institutions in terms of their employment every five years. Pilot studies have shown that 80% of graduates are employed in the first year after graduation, 9% can not find work at all, while 33% can not get a job in their field.

[7] Today Many Arctic universities and their branches have reduced their activities to legitimate trade diplomas. Their Directors have long been concerned about the quality of knowledge, but only efficient collection of money from students’ studying. According to experts, the number of universities should be reduced, and the system of teaching radically restructure,and priority must be given to the theory and practice. As the result there are a lot of employment services for their money by universities.

[8]  In case the Government provides training humanities 60 thousand now. There are study is much lower on a paid department in some regional universities. There are even schools where it 15-18 thousand rubles.

[9] Federal Education and Science Supervision Agency’ opinion that only mechanism for the selection of the quality of the students is the high level of competition, where the seats number coming up for training. Therefore, to create a quality of competition is necessary to reduce the number of universities in the country. The need for this is due to the fact that only 11% of high school graduates in Russia decided to take two compulsory subject – the Russian language and math, this means that the remaining 89% of the graduates intend to enter higher education.

[10]. Brand is a sign, symbol, word or combination of them, to help consumers distinguish the goods or services of one company from another. The brand is seen as a well-known brand or company holding the consciousness and psychology of consumer segments a special place on the weight of their own kind. See: D.A. Shevchenko Advertising, Marketing, PR. M., 2012 p.15

[11] During the classification of higher education institutions, to consider the situation that has developed in the Moscow market of higher vocational education. To elite universities, the high cost of education and established reputation (different price of training depends on the profile of the university) were classified as such state university brands: MSU, MSIIR, HSE, Moscow State Technical University named after Bauman, the price of training ranges from 200-300 thousand rubles and up a year. By the prestigious state universities: MiFi, MIPT, Plekhanov University, RSUH, PFUR, FA, SUM, MSLA, HAZE, RANH-RAGS, commercial: MU, MESI, etc. universities, the price for learning which is about the same from 150-250 rubles. The third category: all the rest, including the commercial, where prices range from 80-150 rubles a year.

[12] It shows the results of studies that have been undertaken together by the marketing and advertising with the RSUH department of marketing and advertising. Numerous interviews applicants conducted for educational exhibitions, Welcome Days, 1-rate students for a long time.

[13]  Discussing actively the replacement of single state diplomas for diplomas specific universities. It can dramatically change the situation on the market demand of higher education

[14] See the details. D.A. Shevchenko. Consumer Behavior: Theory and Practice. / / Personality Culture Society Part 1. M., 2012. T. 14. No. 3 (73-74).

[15] Assess the validity of the material state of the family applicants on the basis of the answers to the questions “fully secured family,” “mostly provided by family,” “not very wealthy family” and was verified by its correlation with the answers to questions that relate to the ability of parents to give education “in the elite university “,” in a prestigious university “,” not necessarily in the prestigious university. ”

[16] The surveys were conducted by the marketing department and advertising with students and led by Head of the Marketing and Advertising RSUH, Professor Shevchenko D.A. during 2006 to 2011. Total surveyed more than two thousand students aged 15 -17 years.

[17] As the family income of the total good consumption under the law Engel increases, they are the same, but to meet the needs of the secondary, which is education, the cost of family and individual increase.

[18] In this case we can assume that the rich people are more motivated to obtain intellectual knowledge and professional experience than less poor. But it is not truth. Prestigious university students from wealthy families with the rare exception of note that are important for the career level of training and professional knowledge and experience.

[19]  This result was obtained by processing the answers to the open questionnaire.

[20] Russian Ministry of Education and Science, with the support of the Association of Russian universities, the Russian Union of Rectors and other reputable organizations over from August 15 to September 15, 2012 began collecting information on 50 criteria for evaluating schools, including non-jurisdictional Russian Ministry of Education, which were developed in the Ministry. As a result of the preliminary analysis of 549 reports had been expected of universities, but the information presented only 531. But 18 universities did not provide information.

[21] The amount of R & D (Research and Advanced Development) per teaching position in the field of science. International activities of the university was assessed by the share of the foreign number students who have completed the study of the main program, that is not include the CIS countries. Financial stability should be characterized by the amount of income from all sources per teaching position. The fifth criterion is the economic activity of the university, which should be assessed in terms of floor space at the right of ownership or operational control. There were added three additional criteria for branches: the number of students, authoritative teaching staff and the proportion of regular teachers.

[22] Public universities are recognized inefficient and need in optimization by Ministry of Education and Science must submit a program of changes, calculated for the period from 2013 to 2015. Program must include a “road map” and intended results. The “road map” identifies five key areas in which the universities will be evaluated: education, research, international, financial, economic activity and infrastructure. Each university must offer from three till five events. Among other universities should anticipate average score CSE undergraduate students.

[23] According to the rating of Ministry of Education and Science of the classic there were 22 signs of inefficiency among universities recognized and 92 as effectively. Among Humanitarian universities with evidence of ineffectiveness recognized: 17 and 6, 11 are effective; Law:0 and 4; Engineers: 20 and 119; Medical: 4 and 42; Teacher’s learning: 31 and 13; Agricultural 26 and 32; Culture and Art: 18 and 36; Sports: 4 and 9; others: 5 and 8. See detailed on Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation’ site: http://минобрнауки.рф/

[24] After Protocol ratification will be effective international agreement, according to which the Russian Federation is a member of the WTO and make a commitment to the Marrakesh Agreement. By becoming a party to the WTO, Russia is committed under the provisions of the General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS)

[25] Time and the market puts a lot in its place. It is not up-to-date the debate around whether education is service. In particular, the problem of what is the product of higher education.

[26] Russia reserves the right to impose any restrictions on the activities of foreign HVE institutions in the national education market, to adjust the total amount of foreign presence in the HVE field. Such a restriction removes the risk of redistribution of the labor market in favor of foreigners. It concerns issues: accreditation, certification and licensing control solvency and financial stability, taxation, etc. It is generally accepted that the national interests of almost every relatively developed countries require preservation of “national sovereignty” over its educational system, including in the field of higher education

 

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